每個運動愛好者都需要最大肌力

 

球類團隊運動項目:

肌力水準越高則跳躍、衝刺、變換方向、落地緩衝、煞車變速的能力越好(1)

長距離耐力與鐵人三項:

肌力水準越高則有較高的運動經濟性(2)、較好的身體吸震緩衝能力(3)

健力愛好者:

好的肌力水準能讓你舉起更重的槓鈴、能用更大的重量進行訓練

健美愛好者:

好的肌力水準可以讓你用更大的重量來進行肌肥大訓練、累積訓練總量

 

一、如何逐步提升肌力

 

如果目標僅是以提升最大肌力為目標,其原則是:『高量低強度週期與高強度低量週期的順序輪流』(4),高量週期提供身體可觀的肌耐力與肌肥大後,可作為後續高強度低量週期用以發展最大肌力的養分,而最大肌力提升後又可成為下一輪肌耐力與肌肥大的養分(5)(6)(7)。

 

二、最大肌力的關鍵是強度

 

最大肌力的關鍵是強度(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14)(15)(16),使用比較高的強度比起較少的強度更有效增加最大肌力。操作較少的次數與組數能讓你使用較高的強度,使用較少的組數也比較多的組數能選擇更重的重量,因為強度與訓練量呈現反比關係,如果想要使用很高的強度卻想把次數或組數拉長是不可能的,那會降低所能舉起的重量。最大肌力訓練對疲勞非常敏感,每組之間有較多的休息能讓你持續舉起大的重量而不會疲勞,故高強度、低訓練、少組數、充分休息是這個週期的特徵。

 

三、小結

 

1.肌力水準越高=人體運動能力越高

2.最大肌力的關鍵是強度

3.操作原則為高強度、低次數、少組數

 

參考文獻:

(1)Cormie, P., McGuigan, M. R., & Newton, R. U. (2010). Influence of strength on magnitude and mechanisms of adaptation to power training. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 42(8), 1566-81.

(2)Millet, G. P., Jaouen, B. E. R. N. A. R. D., Borrani, F. A. B. I. O., & Candau, R. O. B. I. N. (2002). Effects of concurrent endurance and strength training on running economy and VO~ 2 kinetics. Medicine and science in sports and exercise, 34(8), 1351-1359.

(3)Suchomel, T. J., Nimphius, S., & Stone, M. H. (2016). The Importance of Muscular Strength in Athletic Performance. Sports Medicine, 1-31.

(4)Boyle, M. (2016). New Functional Training for Sports. Human Kinetics.

(5)Bompa, T. O., & Haff, G. G. (2009). Periodization: Theory and methodology of training. Human Kinetics Publishers.

(6)Stone, M. H., Stone, M., & Sands, W. A. (2007). Principles and practice of resistance training. Human Kinetics.

(7)Haff, G. G., & Triplett, N. T. (Eds.). (2015). Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning 4th Edition. Human kinetics.

(8)Schoenfeld, B. J., Peterson, M. D., Ogborn, D., Contreras, B., & Sonmez, G. T. (2015). Effects of low-vs. high-load resistance training on muscle strength and hypertrophy in well-trained men. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 29(10), 2954-2963.

(9)Schoenfeld, B. J., Contreras, B., Vigotsky, A. D., & Peterson, M. (2016). Differential Effects of Heavy Versus Moderate Loads on Measures of Strength and Hypertrophy in Resistance-Trained Men. Journal of Sports Science & Medicine, 15(4), 715.

(10)Mitchell, C. J., Churchward-Venne, T. A., West, D. W., Burd, N. A., Breen, L., Baker, S. K., & Phillips, S. M. (2012). Resistance exercise load does not determine training-mediated hypertrophic gains in young men. Journal of applied physiology, 113(1), 71-77.

(11)Peterson, M. D., Alvar, B. A., & Rhea, M. R. (2006). The contribution of maximal force production to explosive movement among young collegiate athletes. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 20(4), 867-873.

(12)Schoenfeld, B. J., Ratamess, N. A., Peterson, M. D., Contreras, B., Sonmez, G. T., & Alvar, B. A. (2014). Effects of different volume-equated resistance training loading strategies on muscular adaptations in well-trained men. The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 28(10), 2909-2918.

(13)Campos, G. E., Luecke, T. J., Wendeln, H. K., Toma, K., Hagerman, F. C., Murray, T. F., ... & Staron, R. S. (2002). Muscular adaptations in response to three different resistance-training regimens: specificity of repetition maximum training zones. European journal of applied physiology, 88(1), 50-60.

(14)Fink, J., Kikuchi, N., Yoshida, S., Terada, K., & Nakazato, K. (2016). Impact of high versus low fixed loads and non-linear training loads on muscle hypertrophy, strength and force development. SpringerPlus, 5(1), 698.

(15)Holm, L., Reitelseder, S., Pedersen, T. G., Doessing, S., Petersen, S. G., Flyvbjerg, A., ... & Kjaer, M. (2008). Changes in muscle size and MHC composition in response to resistance exercise with heavy and light loading intensity. Journal of applied physiology, 105(5), 1454-1461.

(16)Léger, B., Cartoni, R., Praz, M., Lamon, S., Dériaz, O., Crettenand, A., ... & Russell, A. P. (2006). Akt signalling through GSK-3β, mTOR and Foxo1 is involved in human skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy. The Journal of physiology, 576(3), 923-933.

 

 

Coach Hank 簡介:

前勁體能訓練中心 總教練。曾為多位國家隊、職業選手、大專甲一級校隊指導訓練,目前負責前勁體能教練內部訓練及全體學員訓練管控,至今服務累積超過萬名教練、選手與學員。

=國立台灣師範大學體育研究所-運動生物力學組

=美國肌力與體能協會-肌力與體能專家(NSCA-CSCS)

=美國運動醫學會-運動表現專家(NASM-PES)

=美國運動醫學會-矯正訓練專家(NASM-CES)

前勁體能訓練中心 一對一教練課 招生中,如果你對訓練有任何疑問,歡迎來訊前勁體能粉絲頁諮詢。

 

 

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